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Cobold

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Bei vorsichtiger Lenkung gehts aber auch mit dem Material ab Werk. Wir sind fast die ganze Zeit mit 5 Stufe gefahren. Vom Hersteller zur Verfügung gestellte Information. Die Cobold Beste Spielothek in Rodund finden aus recht stabilem Kunststoff, man sollte dabei aber nicht zu fest schrauben. Der Servicekontakt war ausgezeichnet. Für den Strom sorgten 2 horizontal ausgerichtete Solarmodule mit Watt plus 50 Watt Nennleistung, bei voller Sonne hab Bizzey 12 Volt und 10 Ampere gemessen und bin mit Motorstufe 2 ganz ordentlich vorangekommen, geschätzt gute Schrittgeschwindigkeit. Er ist sehr leicht, ca. Bis jetzt TOP. Sehr schnelle Www.Gut Drucken.De.

Thus, the right solution can be found for every application area. Within the scope of the automation of industrial processes, monitoring of filling levels is an important issue for liquids as well as for bulk solids.

Float switches and level indicators from Kobold Messring GmbH work extremely reliably within a defined tolerance range. Level indicators and level sensors can be adapted to a wide range of liquids and environments, and can also be used in environments with heavily polluted fluids.

The data of the level indicators can either be read directly on the display, or can be integrated into the various control and monitoring systems by means of a measuring transducer and a BUS interface.

Thanks to the wide selection of different level measuring devices and level switches, monitoring and measurement of the most varied filling levels can be carried out reliably at any time.

Kobold Messring GmbH has quickly established itself in the area of pressure monitoring and pressure measurement of plants. Different pressure gauges are used in a wide variety of plants worldwide and are persuading by their reliability and their low measuring tolerances.

Pressure gauges can be used both for monitoring the pressure and for pressure-dependent control of plants and processes. Thanks to modern and functional pressure switches, many processes in the industry can be reliably pressure-controlled automated.

This is not only a mean of optimizing the process, but in many cases also of safety, since an overpressure in the system can be reliably detected and remedied by the pressure measuring devices and pressure switches.

Various pressure gauges and pressure sensors operate with relative pressure, absolute pressure, as a differential pressure gauge and raise the pressure monitoring to a new level.

Your measuring problems are our challenge Contact us! Manufacturer of Innovative Instrumentation Flow. Product search. ORP, PH. Declaratives are sections beginning with a USE statement which specify the errors to handle.

Exceptions can be names or objects. Unlike other languages, uncaught exceptions may not terminate the program and the program can proceed unaffected.

Such statements may be terminated in two ways: by a period implicit termination , which terminates all unterminated statements contained, or by a scope terminator, which terminates the nearest matching open statement.

Nested statements terminated with a period are a common source of bugs. Here, the intent is to display y and z if condition x is true.

Many compilers still support it, [] but it was deemed obsolete in the COBOL standard and deleted in The ALTER statement was poorly regarded because it undermined "locality of context" and made a program's overall logic difficult to comprehend.

McCracken wrote in , when "someone who has never seen the program before must become familiar with it as quickly as possible, sometimes under critical time pressure because the program has failed When the — now famous — "Hello, World!

Line 10 of the console listing above is highlighted for effect, the highlighting is not part of the actual console output. The associated compiler listing generated over four pages of technical detail and job run information, for the single line of output from the 14 lines of COBOL.

In the s, adoption of the structured programming paradigm was becoming increasingly widespread. Edsger Dijkstra , a preeminent computer scientist, wrote a letter to the editor of Communications of the ACM , published entitled "How do we tell truths that might hurt?

Tompkins claimed that unstructured COBOL tended to be "written by programmers that have never had the benefit of structured COBOL taught well", arguing that the issue was primarily one of training.

One cause of spaghetti code was the GO TO statement. However, PERFORM could only be used with procedures so loop bodies were not located where they were used, making programs harder to understand.

COBOL programs were infamous for being monolithic and lacking modularization. It was impossible to restrict access to data, meaning a procedure could access and modify any data item.

Furthermore, there was no way to pass parameters to a procedure, an omission Jean Sammet regarded as the committee's biggest mistake.

This meant that control could jump to and return from any procedure, creating convoluted control flow and permitting a programmer to break the single-entry single-exit rule.

COBOL added subprograms, giving programmers the ability to control the data each part of the program could access.

COBOL then added nested subprograms, allowing programmers to hide subprograms. Nevertheless, much important legacy COBOL software uses unstructured code, which has become unmaintainable.

It can be too risky and costly to modify even a simple section of code, since it may be used from unknown places in unknown ways.

COBOL was intended to be a highly portable, "common" language. However, by , around dialects had been created. This permitted , official variants.

COBOL was not fully compatible with earlier versions, and its development was controversial. Joseph T. On the other hand, conversion to COBOL was thought to increase productivity in future years, thus justifying the conversion costs.

The Jargon File 4. COBOL syntax has often been criticized for its verbosity. Proponents say that this was intended to make the code self-documenting , easing program maintenance.

Jean Sammet, a short-range committee member, noted that "little attempt was made to cater to the professional programmer, in fact people whose main interest is programming tend to be very unhappy with COBOL" which she attributed to COBOL's verbose syntax.

No academic computer scientists participated in the design of COBOL: all of those on the committee came from commerce or government. Computer scientists at the time were more interested in fields like numerical analysis, physics and system programming than the commercial file-processing problems which COBOL development tackled.

This resulted in "severe" criticism. Doubts have been raised about the competence of the standards committee. Short-term committee member Howard Bromberg said that there was "little control" over the development process and that it was "plagued by discontinuity of personnel and However, some committee members raised concerns about incompatibilities between implementations and frequent modifications of the standard.

COBOL's data structures influenced subsequent programming languages. Explicit file structure definitions preceded the development of database management systems and aggregated data was a significant advance over Fortran's arrays.

The focus on portability and standardization meant programs written in COBOL could be portable and facilitated the spread of the language to a wide variety of hardware platforms and operating systems.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Kobol , a fictional planet in Battlestar Galactica.

Programming language with English-like syntax. It is rather unlikely that Cobol will be around by the end of the decade. A weak, verbose, and flabby language used by code grinders to do boring mindless things on dinosaur mainframes.

Computer programming portal. March IEEE Software. The Short-Range Committee worked diligently from June on, but there were great difficulties in having a fairly large committee try to create a programming language.

Sammet Sylvania Electric Products. We worked for two full weeks including some round-the-clock sessions in November and sent the proposed specifications to the full Short-Range Committee, which accepted almost all of them.

After some editing by the same six people , we turned in the specifications as a final report in December to the Executive Committee, which accepted them in January After some further editing, the Government Printing Office issued Cobol Dobb's Journal.

Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 21 April February Cambridge University Press. September Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference.

IBM Software Group. Wexelblat, Richard L. History of Programming Languages. Academic Press published Retrieved 9 February Retrieved 27 April MIT Press.

Retrieved 7 June Texas Public Radio. Archived from the original on 24 May Retrieved 19 July Grace Hopper Nicknamed Grandma Cobol, the code was based on some of her earlier work.

She said — after hearing the rumors — one of her collaborators went out and bought a granite tombstone. Then he shipped it express collect to Mr.

Phillips in the pentagon. COBOL would go on to become the most widely used and longest lasting computer languages in history. Basic Books.

Computer History Museum. December Archived from the original PDF on 25 December Retrieved 28 June Unfortunately, my notes do not show who made that suggestion.

The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2 April Archived from the original on 23 December The Computer Museum Report.

Summer Archived PDF from the original on 3 April Retrieved 29 June Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea.

US Naval Institute Press. Encyclopedia of Computer Science 4th ed. Manchester University Press. PDF Technical report. Department of the Navy.

Archived PDF from the original on 7 January Retrieved 7 January Ghost 1 June McGraw-Hill Education.

Public Sector Media Group. Retrieved 26 April Micro Focus. Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 2 September Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 14 February Archived from the original PDF on 11 July Retrieved 14 August Archived from the original on 24 February Retrieved 12 July Archived from the original PDF on 17 August Retrieved 30 September Government Accountability Office.

Archived from the original PDF on 15 June It is widely known that agencies need to move to more modern, maintainable languages, as appropriate and feasible.

Retrieved 8 April Retrieved 11 June Washington Post. Kobolds who live in human homes wear the clothing of peasants; those who live in mines are hunched and ugly; kobolds who live on ships smoke pipes and wear sailor clothing.

Legends tell of three major types of kobolds. Most commonly, the creatures are house spirits of ambivalent nature; while they sometimes perform domestic chores, they play malicious tricks if insulted or neglected.

Famous kobolds of this type include King Goldemar , Heinzelmann , and Hödekin. In some regions, kobolds are known by local names, such as the Galgenmännlein of southern Germany and the Heinzelmännchen of Cologne.

Another type of kobold haunts underground places, such as mines. A third kind of kobold, the Klabautermann , lives aboard ships and helps sailors.

Kobold beliefs are evidence of the survival of pagan customs after the Christianisation of Germany. Such pagan practices may have derived from beliefs in the mischievous kobalos of ancient Greece, the household lares and penates of ancient Rome, or native German beliefs in a similar room spirit called kofewalt whose name is a possible rootword of the modern kobold or a German dialectal variant.

This may indicate a common origin for these creatures, or it may represent cultural borrowings and influences of European peoples upon one another.

Similarly, subterranean kobolds may share their origins with creatures such as gnomes and dwarves and the aquatic Klabautermann with similar water spirits.

The name of the element cobalt comes from the creature's name, because medieval miners blamed the sprite for the poisonous and troublesome nature of the typical arsenical ores of this metal cobaltite and smaltite which polluted other mined elements.

The kobold's origins are obscure. Sources equate the domestic kobold with creatures such as the English boggart , hobgoblin and pixy , the Scottish brownie , and the Scandinavian nisse or tomte ; [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] while they align the subterranean variety with the Norse dwarf and the Cornish knocker.

Kobold beliefs represent the survival of pagan customs into the Christian and modern eras and offer hints of how pagan Europeans worshipped in the privacy of their homes.

One example, known as the monoloke , was made from white wax and wore a blue shirt and black velvet vest. Several competing etymologies for kobold have been suggested.

In , Otto Schrader traced the word to kuba-walda , meaning "the one who rules the house". The suffix -old means "to rule".

Grimm has provided one of the earlier and more commonly accepted [ dubious — discuss ] [ citation needed ] etymologies for kobold , [4] tracing the word's origin through the Latin cobalus to the Greek koba'los , meaning " rogue ".

The change to the word-final -olt is a feature of the German language used for monsters and supernatural beings. Variants of kobold appear as early as the 13th century.

Another class of kobold lives in underground places. Folklorists have proposed that the mine kobold derives from the beliefs of the ancient Germanic people.

Scottish historical novelist Walter Scott has suggested that the Proto-Norse based the kobolds on the short-statured Finns, Lapps, and Latvians who fled their invasions and sought shelter in northern European caves and mountains.

There they put their skills at smithing to work and, in the beliefs of the proto-Norse, came to be seen as supernatural beings.

These beliefs spread, becoming the kobold, the Germanic gnome , [ dubious — discuss ] the French goblin and the Scottish bogle.

German writer Heinrich Smidt believed that the sea kobolds, or Klabautermann , entered German folklore via German sailors who had learned about them in England.

However, historians David Kirby and Merja-Liisa Hinkkanen dispute this, claiming no evidence of such a belief in Britain. An alternate view connects the Klabautermann myths with the story of Saint Phocas of Sinope.

As that story spread from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea. Scholar Reinhard Buss instead sees the Klabautermann as an amalgamation of early and pre-Christian beliefs mixed with new creatures.

Kobolds are spirits and, as such, part of a spiritual realm. However, as with other European spirits, they often dwell among the living.

Many of these names are modifications of common German given names, such as Heinrich abbreviated to Heinze , Joachim, and Walther.

Kobolds may manifest as animals, fire, human beings, and objects. A tale from the Altmark , recorded by Anglo-Saxon scholar Benjamin Thorpe in , describes the kobold as "a fiery stripe with a broad head, which he usually shakes from one side to the other Kobolds who live in human homes are generally depicted as humanlike, dressed as peasants, and standing about as tall as a four-year-old child.

According to dramatist and novelist X. Saintine , kobolds are the spirits of dead children and often appear with a knife that represents the means by which they were put to death.

Legends variously describe mine kobolds as 0. We were about to sit down to tea when Mdlle. Gronin called our attention to the steady light, round, and about the size of a cheese plate, which appeared suddenly on the wall of the little garden directly opposite the door of the hut in which we sat.

Before any of us could rise to examine it, four more lights appeared almost simultaneously, about the same shape, and varying only in size.

Surrounding each one was the dim outline of a small human figure, black and grotesque, more like a little image carved out of black shining wood, than anything else I can liken them to.

Dorothea kissed her hands to these dreadful little shapes, and Michael bowed with great reverence. As for me and my companions, we were so awe-struck yet amused at these comical shapes, that we could not move or speak until they themselves seemed to flit about in a sort of wavering dance, and then vanish, one by one.

The same informant claimed to later have seen the kobolds first-hand. She described them as "diminutive black dwarfs about two or three feet in height, and at that part which in the human being is occupied by the heart, they carry the round luminous circle first described, an appearance which is much more frequently seen than the little black men themselves.

Other kobolds appear as animals. Ashliman has reported kobolds appearing as wet cats and hens, [45] and Arrowsmith and Moorse mention kobolds in the shape of bats, cats, roosters, snakes, and worms.

Most often, kobolds remain completely invisible. The kobold's fingers were childlike, and his face was like a skull, without body heat. The kobold refuses, claiming that to look upon him would be terrifying.

Undeterred, the maid insists, and the kobold tells her to meet him later—and to bring along a pail of cold water.

The kobold waits for the maid, nude and with a butcher knife in his back. The maid faints at the sight, and the kobold wakes her with the cold water.

For example, Heinzelmann tricked a nobleman into thinking that the kobold was hiding in a jug. When the nobleman covered the jug's mouth to trap the creature, the kobold chided him:.

If I had not heard long ago from other people that you were a fool, I might now have known it of myself, since you thought I was sitting in an empty jug, and went to cover it up with your hand, as if you had me caught.

I don't think you worth the trouble, or I would have given you, long since, such a lesson, that you should remember me long enough. But before long you will get a slight ducking.

When a man threw ashes and tares about to try to see King Goldemar's footprints, the kobold cut him to pieces, put him on a spit, roasted him, boiled his legs and head, and ate him.

In , Keightley noted that the Heinzelmänchen "[had] totally disappeared, as has been everywhere the case, owing to the curiosity of people, which has at all times been the destruction of so much of what was beautiful in the world.

Domestic kobolds are linked to a specific household. One tradition claims that the kobold enters the household by announcing itself at night by strewing wood chips about the house and putting dirt or cow manure in the milk cans.

If the master of the house leaves the wood chips and drinks the soiled milk, the kobold takes up residence. He must go on St John's Day between noon and one o'clock, into the forest.

When he finds an anthill with a bird on it, he must say a certain phrase, which causes the bird to transform into a small person.

The figure then leaps into a bag carried by the homeowner, and he can then transfer the kobold to his home.

House kobolds usually live in the hearth area of a house, [32] although some tales place them in less frequented parts of the home, in the woodhouse, [65] in barns and stables, or in the beer cellar of an inn.

At night, such kobolds do chores that the human occupants neglected to finish before bedtime: [66] They chase away pests, clean the stables, feed and groom the cattle and horses, scrub the dishes and pots, and sweep the kitchen.

A Cologne legend recorded by Keightley claims that bakers in the city in the early 19th century never needed hired help because, each night, the kobolds known as Heinzelmänchen made as much bread as a baker could need.

A kobold can bring wealth to his household in the form of grain and gold. Despite standing only about a foot tall, the creature could carry a load of rye in his mouth for the people with whom he lived and did so daily as long as he received a meal of biscuits and milk.

Kobolds bring good luck and help their hosts as long as the hosts take care of them. The kobold Heinzelmann found things that had been lost. The man ignored the advice, only to have his gun backfire and shoot off his thumb.

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